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Reading Interventions:

Click HERE to download the entire RtI Manual as an interactive PDF.

- Least Intensive Interventions
Moderate/Intensive Interventions

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Phonics instruction is most effective when it begins in kindergarten or first grade. To be effective with young learners, systematic instruction must be designed appropriately and taught carefully. It should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness and all major letter-sound relationships. It should ensure that all children learn these skills. As instruction proceeds, children should be taught to use this knowledge to read and write words.

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The English alphabet contains 26 letters but we use roughly 44 phonemes. These sounds are represented by as many as 250 different spellings (e.g. /f/ as in ph, f, gh, ff). Children who are instructed to segment words into phonemes as well as pair letter names and letter sounds showed significantly improved early reading and literacy skills. Students who have training in letter naming and letter sounds only are not as successful.

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Does Phoneme Awareness Training in Kindergarten Make a Difference in Early Word Recognition and Developmental Spelling? Eileen W. Ball, Benita A. Blachman Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Winter, 1991), pp. 49-66.

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Least Intensive Interventions

Phonics and Word Study

Phonics and Word Study, Student Activity Center: Interactive computer games for grades pre-K - 6

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Lesson plans, coloring books, worksheets, word wall activities and books for improving phonics in pre-k to third grade.

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Phonics Sound Identification

Phonics Sound Identification: Players are given three words but they differ by only one sound:

Example: big, bag and bug

Phonics Sound Identification: Have children make words out of a larger word. How many words they can make out of a larger word?

Example: Constant – you could pull, sat, ant, nat

Phonics Sound Identification: Using the Dolch list appropriate for the student’s grade level and write the words on index cards. Present three of the cards to the student at a time. The instructor or tutor will say one of the words and the student must choose or identify the word spoken from the three choices.

Categorizing words: Give the student a group of words and have the student categorize them into a related word.

Example: Of the words strawberry, bat, banana, dog, bottle and orange; the student would categorize strawberry, banana, and orange together since they are fruits.

Similar interactive computer games can be found online at http://pbskids.org.

Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction

  • Introduce most common sound for a new letter (/k/ for “c”)
  • Separate instruction of potentially confusing letters due to visual or auditory similarity (h/n, e/I, b/d)
  • May introduce low case letters first (more functional)
  • Start with high-utility letters (s, t, m and vowels, not z, x)
  • Select words that start with continuous sounds rather than stop sounds when beginning to sound out words—or for blending and segmenting practice (use “mat” before “bat”)
  • Potential sequence for introducing letters: a, m, t, s, S, I, f, d, r, o, O, g, l, h, u, U, c, C, b, n, k, K, v, V, e, w, W, j, p, P, y, Y, T L, M, F, D, I, N, A, R, E, H, G, B, x, X, q, z, Z , J, Q

Courtesy of:
Using Progress Monitoring as Data-Based Decision-Making: Materials for Trainers. Presentation for ESU #1, Spring 2006, Dr. Erica Lembke, University of Missouri

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Moderate/Intensive Interventions

Funnel Toward Phonics

Source: Funnel Toward Phonics: Quick Reference Activity Book and Poster by Judy Montgomery, Ph. D., CCC-SLP

Funnel Toward Phonics is a handy, quick reference, 48-page Activity Book, and Poster Set that clearly organizes and defines the “ph” words of reading: phonological processing, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness and phonics. Fifty-three group and individual activities provide a host of teaching ideas for anyone involved in helping pre-readers. Plus, Funnel Toward Phonics meets IDEA and No Child Left Behind requirements.

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The Phonological Awareness Kit

The Phonological Awareness Kit is designed as a direct instruction supplement to any regular classroom reading program. The goal of this program is to enable students to solve the phoneme/grapheme code of the English language, resulting in improvement of word attack and spelling skills. It provides a multi-sensory way of teaching.

Program: The Phonological Awareness Book-Primary from 1995
Publisher Source: LinguiSystems, Inc.
Educational Level: K – 3
Authors: Carolyn Robertson and Wanda Salter

PALS (Peer Assisted Learning Strategies)

Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a class-wide peer-tutoring program providing supplemental practice and instruction on key reading skills. K-PALS focuses on phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle and sight word reading. First Grade PALS focuses on alphabetic principle, fluency and sight word reading. Second-Eighth Grade PALS focuses on fluency and accuracy in connected text and reading comprehension strategies of summarization, main idea and predication. High School PALS focuses on Fluency and comprehension skills within the context of a career, job oriented structure. Lessons are provided to train students to be “readers and coaches”. Students are taught correction procedures and instructional cues. K-8 PALS can be used in general or special educational classrooms. High School PALS has only been validated in special education and remedial settings.

Program: PALS (Peer Assisted Learning Strategies)
Publisher/Source: Vanderbilt University
Educational level: K, 1, 2-6, 7-12
Author: Lynn and Doug Fuchs

Reading Mastery

Reading Mastery I teaches basic decoding and comprehension skills. Intensive, explicit phonics instruction helps use the words immediately as they read stories. Reading Mastery II expands basic reading skills. Strategies for decoding difficult words and answering interpretive comprehension questions are introduced. Reading Mastery III focuses on the development of reasoning skills, building background knowledge and higher order comprehension skills. Reading Mastery IV continues to stress reasoning and reference skills and the development of higher-level comprehension skills. Reading Master V focuses on building students’ understanding of literature, literary language and analysis, reasoning strategies and extends writing are incorporated with story selection. Reading Mastery VI helps students gain insight into literary language and a variety of literary strategies.

Program: Reading Mastery (Rainbow)
Publisher/Source: Science Research Associates
Educational Level: Grades K -6
Author: Siegfied Engelmann et al

Read Well

Read Well is a reading program that combines systematic phonics, mastery-based learning and rich content. From the beginning, children develop strong decoding sills, comprehension strategies and sophisticated content knowledge. Read Well systematically introduces and reviews skills and strategies. It utilizes narrative and expository content that piques learner interest. A teacher/student “duet story format” and students “solo story format” promote student reading independence while ensuring education and enjoyable material. Reading and writing activities include story maps, story retells and guided reports. Read Well stories are scaffolded to support increasing independent reading by students. As students gain independent reading skills, student-read text gradually increases and teacher-read text is gradually withdrawn.

Program: Read Well
Publisher/Source: Sopris West
Educational Level: First, Special Education 2nd and 3rd. Current version appropriate for some kindergarten students
Author: Marilyn Sprick

Sound Partners

Sound Partners is phonics-based tutoring program that provides individual explicit instruction in early reading skills to students who need it most. The program was specifically developed to reduce the number of students identified with reading disabilities by supplementing reading instruction for: first graders at highest risk of reading failure, second and third graders below grade level in reading and students just learning the English language.

Program: Sound Partners
Publisher Source: Sopris West
Educational Level: 1-3 and ESL
Author: Patricia Vadasy

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